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Anti-Chlamydia trachomatis IgM Abs.

Chlamydia are a group of obligate intracellular parasites that are close to Gram-negative bacteria, which have lost the ability to synthesize ATP, GTP, and a number of other enzyme systems. This determines their intracellular growth. All chlamydiae are similar in morphological features, have a common group antigen and multiply in the cytoplasm of the host organism, passing through certain stages of development. The infectious principle is an elementary body, 0.3 ?m in diameter, which penetrates into the host cell by phagocytosis, and a vacuole is formed from the surface membranes of the cell around the elementary body. The elementary body is divided into a reticular body with a diameter of about 0.5-1.0 ?m. Inside the formed vacuole, the coarse particle grows and is divided many times by the formation of a transverse septum, and eventually the entire vacuole is filled with elementary particles (up to 200-1000 infectious units) and turns into inclusion in the cytoplasm of the host cell. Newly formed elementary corpuscles leave the cell and can infect new cells. The entire cycle takes 48-72 hours. Relate to the family Chlamydiaceae, and, according to the new classification, are divided into two genuses: Chlamydia and Chlamydophila : The genus Chlamydia includes species of Chl. trachomatis , Chl.muridarum and Chl.suis , of which Chl. trachomatis is exclusively a human parasite, and the other two species cause diseases of rodents and ruminants. Different strains of Chl. trachomatis can cause trachoma, urogenital tract diseases, some forms of arthritis, conjunctivitis and pneumonia in newborns. The genus Chlamydophila is composed of Chl. psittaci , Chl. pneumoniae and Chl. pecorum , Chlamydophila abortus , Chlamydophila caviae and Chlamydophila felis . Diseases caused by Clamydia trachomatis (Chl. Trachomatis) Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial pathogen of STIs in the world, especially among young people. There are three serovars and 15 biovars Chl. trachomatis , in particular trachomal biovar, urogenital biovar and biovar causing venereal lymphogranuloma. Most often, chlamydia is transmitted through direct sexual contact, children can become infected while passing through the birth canal. The level of infection with direct sexual contact exceeds 75%, thus, partner notification and timely treatment are extremely important. In women Chl. trachomatis causes cervicitis, urethritis, postcoital bleeding, pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), proctitis. Considering the high percentage of asymptomatic forms (up to 90%), timely diagnosis and treatment often do not take place, the process acquires a chronic course and complications develop (salpingitis, endometritis, adhesion in tubes, ectopic pregnancy), which lead to infertility Infertility in 80% of cases is caused by Chl. trachomatis ). This determines the need to exclude infection not only in cases of vivid clinical manifestations, but also in all cases of infertility. In men Chl. trachomatis causes non-gonococcal urethritis, epididymitis, proctitis. May lead to the development of Reiter's syndrome. The asymptomatic forms are less common than in women, but still make up about 50% of all cases, which determines the need to exclude this infection not only with a pronounced lesion clinic, but also in all cases of infertility. In newborn infants, infection during passage through the birth can lead to the development of a clinic of conjunctivitis or pneumonia in the first weeks of life. In addition, the clinical manifestations of chlamydial infection caused by Chl. trachomatis , ophthalmologic diseases (trachoma, conjunctivitis), venereal lymphogranuloma (a clinic of urethritis with purulent inguinal lymphadenitis), Reiter's syndrome (triad: urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritis), proctitis, proctocoliths, more rare lesions of the conjunctiva, upper respiratory tract, endocarditis, perihepatitis.